Illegal immigration is so relevant in Italy at present, that it has required the establishment of specialised sections or groups within the police forces and the Public Prosecutor’s Offices of the Republic. This book is divided into two sections. The first explains the conditions for legal entry, criminal charges linked to the illegal entry of non-community nationals into the Country and illustrates concrete, more frequent cases with constant reference to judgements handed down by the Supreme Court of Appeal. The system of administrative expulsion is also dealt with, with reference to the recent Law 271/2004, introducing the competence of the Justice of the Peace on the matter. The second section illustrates (with the aid of examples) the legal (with reference to special regulations on the matter) and investigation instruments (also mentioning international orders and extradition requests) at the disposal of investigators (magistrate or criminal police officer) for the purposes of an investigation into illegal immigration.